How to Make a Robotic Lawn Mower( 5 Easy Steps)

In terms of lawn maintenance, cuts are the most difficult task, uncomfortable and repetitive, and frequently take material resources. Therefore, we are considering making an intelligent lawnmower to replace the traditional lawnmower.

A typical smart lawnmower detects dangers, control systems, motion systems, and mowing systems. In addition, it may detect ambient values, motion mechanics, and mowing mechanics, and results can send to the monitoring system.

An independent lawnmower is worth researching because it has many commercial, economical, and intellectual characteristics that may indirectly affect the development of robotics and automation.

Therefore, we aimed to work as a team together. We thus create tasks and split them amongst us, which improves the results.

How to Make the Robotic Lawn Mower?

Step 1: Design Mechanical

In the early stages, we need the interfaces to generally provide a market component for joining and acquiring core elements such as motor and sensor systems. Therefore, we are improving their interfaces before laser cutting in future phases.

The structure’s rigidity:

The components of the body use small assembly protrusions. Afterward, we joined the body parts with the L-clamps, as shown in the photos, to strengthen and strengthen the structure. The L-clamps may show in 3D.


Ongoing tracks instead of separating Lawnmower Rotary wheels. Continuous tracks are above performance wheels and optimize the traction system.

Improving power delivery efficiency. Moreover, even on slippery terrains such as snow and wet pavement, traction is good (conditions of a Lawnmower)

Bumpers and Sensors:

We utilize the lawnmower to meet different obstacles such as the street lamp, fence, rocks, etc. As a consequence, a security method to safeguard it from damage is essential.

Bumpers may use a limit switch feature to make front-facing robots. If the bumper strikes the smaller items, the robot reverses its path. Besides the bumper, detectors may remotely detect obstacles.

Pretension mechanism:

It is common for a lawnmower to provide different terrain. Moist soil, rocky ground, rocks, and stones are difficult.

The paths should be relatively fluid (dynamic) to go up or over. We produced such movement on the tracks by employing tensile springs and applying the force on each side of the top tires.

Step 2: Components

  • The body: 5mm clear Plexiglass laser cut
  • Fixtures, peripheral parts: 3d printed
  • Tracks and wheels
  • DC geared Motors 2
  • Brushed DC gear motor
  • Cooling fan
  • The ultrasonic sensors
  • Battery
  • Arduino
  • Adafruit motor shield version
  • Toggle switch 6P
  • Bump sensor
  • Other fasteners

Step 3: Working

After the whole robot can design, the different body components can design by utilizing laser cutting of glass panels. You can see Robotic Lawn Mower work and how

3D printing: Additional elements of the VUB Robotics laboratory use 3D printing, such as bumpers, L-clamps, and battery holders. We used PLA for the components (polymer).

Step 4: Circuit

The circuit can begin to design using the program Fritzing. The circuit schematic is easy to connect.

Some particular circuits: The Arduino has two input pins for triggering and an echo for an ultrasound. Furthermore, an Arduino digital pin may be read for the control valve.

 Finally, two switches were removed on either end of the motor shield DC driving motors. Cooling and cutting supply the motor shield straight out of the battery.

Toggle switch: connects the power supply positives to the power pin of the motor shield. Furthermore, from the selective knob, a pin is used to attach the mode sensor (manual and automatic) to a digital read pin in the Arduino.

 If the switch is in the right position, the pin is reading high (+VE connects to pin); and reversed, if the switch is down position, the pin area.

The board design was used to acquire all the sensors’ motifs and +5 volts, which take one positive and neutral position from its Adafruit shield and distribute them across different output pins.

Component connection:

Limit Switch: There are three limits: one is typically closed (NC), one is usually open (NO), and one is common (NO) (com). Arduino, the com pin is connected to a red pin, and NC may connect with the ground and NO to +5V.

‘Whenever the switch is not engaged, the Arduino will read small, and the robot will move forward. When involved, the Arduino will read high and send an order to the moving motors to reverse the switch.

The trigger and reflecting ports of the Ultra Sonic detector can connect to the Arduino pins. It identifies impediments up to 500 cm distant and tells the actuators from the first sensor to reverse and find the quickest route.

Parallax PING Acoustic Sensor: The detector can provide two pins of power and has one pin to trigger and echo, resulting in a single read pin.

DC driving motors: Adafruit can link the two primary driving engines.

The engines are properly connected to these platforms and may change the wire connections as needed since the Arduino doesn’t know how the engine is moving.

Higher frequencies cause less noticeable hum while operating and lower torque with certain engines.

The toggle switch has two pins in the center, two pins in the higher, and two pins in the lower. The initial columns are for the battery power, and the familiar middle connects to the +ve power supply channel, the top, and bottom columns to the +ve cathode battery.

The second is the robot mode: the joint link to the read pin Arduino, the top pin to the ground Arduino and the bottom pin to +5 volts.

In this case, Arduino may detect high from this pin, operate in automatic mode, and work in manual mode if it reads low.

It all depends on the toggle switch position; Power applies in higher and lower locations with the first column connection.

Cooling fan and cutting motor: These two motors may be connected using Adafruit motor shield channels.

Due to the limitations of the motor shield current, however, both engines may connect with a 12V battery to prevent burning the board. Because two engine ratings run with 12 volts, both engines must mimic performance in high RPM.

Step 5: Testing

We have assessed the robots in a range of scenarios, and here are some of the main tasks they might do:

  • Lawn Mowing – Random Motion – Automatic Mode
  • Detection of barricades
  • Detecting impediments
  • Lawn Mowing – Manually Mode – Using a Remote
  • Positioning the mower inside a small area

Frequently Asked Question

Is a robotic lawn mower a good investment?

In reality, a robotic mower works best when utilized a few times each week, cutting just a tiny amount each time. Then, the cuttings are fine enough to filter back to the ground this way.

Are robot lawn mowers effective?

A further thing modern robot lawn mowers excel at is improving the quality and appearance of your grass. This is due to two significant factors. The first is to trim your lawn regularly. Robot lawnmowers can trim your grass considerably more often than a standard mower.

How long are robotic lawn mowers expected to last?

In typically, robotic mowers have a 10-year lifespan. However, this depends on the kind of grass you are mowing as well as other environmental factors. A considerably longer lifetime is achievable if appropriate maintenance can do.


Mowing the grass is one of those tedious chores for which most of us wish we had a robot. Mowing requirements are more demanding than in most backyards.

Therefore a ride-on mower capable of handling multi-acre fields on its own is recommended. However, they often lack an essential component: allowing you to contribute your ideas to the robot’s “brain.”

This project’s aim (‘Ardumower’) is to offer a new ‘brain’ for every robot mower on the planet!

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